Sapphire

Sapphire is a gem quality variety of the mineral corundum. It is the second hardest substance on earth after diamond, rating 9 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Corundum itself is not a very rare mineral, but gem quality corundum is extremely rare. Most corundum is opaque to translucent and heavily included, suitable only for industrial use, including the production of abrasives used for sandpaper and machining of metal, plastics and wood. The name corundum comes from the Sanskrit word kuruvindam, meaning "ruby sapphire", while the name sapphire comes from the Persian word safir, derived from the Greek word for blue. In times of antiquity and the Middle Ages, the term sapphire actually referred to lapis lazuli, but in the early 19th century, the description and definition of sapphire was changed to the corundum variety we know today.